A Guide to Organizational Strategy Facilitation

Engage organizational leaders to generate a shared understanding and insights for strategy-focused conversations.

Business or Organizational Strategy is an alignment between why (mission and vision), what (the domain of the business), who (key partners and customers), and how (the plan). Strategy informs what an organization does and perhaps more importantly, what it doesn’t do.

A concise definition of business strategy by Michael Watkins in Harvard Business Review:

A business strategy is a set of guiding principles that, when communicated and adopted in the organization, generates a desired pattern of decision making.

But how does an organization collaboratively craft a strategy when there are many moving parts?

The selected activities in this guide have successfully engaged organizational leaders to generate a shared understanding and insights for strategy-focused conversations. This guide is presented as a full day of activities but if you only have time for one, choose the most meaningful activity for your situation.

Important Facilitator Notes

  • These activities are intentionally in-person, using paper, sticky notes, markers, and movement.
  • These activities are arranged specifically to build on each other, kindle engagement, and reduce participant fatigue. Feel free to reorganize or eliminate activities based on the needs of your organization.
  • Recommended number of participants is 6–10.
  • Encourage participants to put away their digital devices.
  • Keep a watch on time and remind participants when they have one minute left. You may need to kindly but firmly interrupt participants to keep an activity moving.
  • Consider adding icebreakers, healthy snacks, and humor to maintain participant engagement.

Activity 1 — Getting to Know You

30–60 minutes, depending on the number of participants

Purpose: Establish rapport in the group, value for each other, and setting the stage for discussion in other activities.

Pre-Session Checklist

  • Clifton StrengthsFinder results for participants
  • Empty StrengthFinder wall chart
  • Sticky notes
  • Sharpie markers

Begin Session

Introduce yourself. During your personal introduction, post your StrengthFinder results as a demonstration for the group, adding a short example of of how you demonstrate each strength.

Simple StrengthsFinder wall chart using cards, sticky notes, tape, and markers

Introduce purpose for the activity. Say,

By the end of these sessions we will understand our organizational strengths, weaknesses, opportunities that are before us, and threats we face.

We will discover our organizations Core Values.

We will discuss our Value Proposition and the people we want to reach and serve.

Together we will draw a Value Curve, a visual comparison of us and other organizations like ours.

We will examine channels we use to communicate to the people we want to reach. We’ll ask “What kind of relationships do we have with them?”

We will flesh out and put in one place our Key Resources, Key Activities, and Key Partners.

If we have time, we will discuss and document goals and set a plan in place for how to reach those goals.

That’s a lot to accomplish so let’s set some ground rules for our sessions.

• There is no hierarchy. In this meeting everyone is on the same level and considered an equal.

• Everyone has the opportunity to contribute.

• There is no judgment or criticism on ideas.

• Everyone should put away digital devices and turn off volume on notifications.

StrengthsFinder Activity

The Clifton StrengthsFinder assessment helps individuals and teams understand each other’s strengths in patterns of thought, feeling, and behavior.

Healthy leadership teams rely on each other’s strengths while working through the complexities of organizational development. Does everyone have the results of their Strengthsfinder assessment?

Let participants pull out digital devices to access results if they do not have them on paper.

Write your name on 5 sticky notes and number them 1–5.

One at a time, based on your StrengthsFinder results, post them on the wall and share a short example of each strength. You’ll have 5 minutes each.

Allow participants to share one at a time. Thank each participant individually.

According to Gallup, teams that focus on their strengths are 12.5% more productive. Consider the strengths of your teammates and draw on them during the activities today.

Activity 2 — SWOT Analysis

30 minutes

Purpose: Analysis of strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats.

Pre-Session Checklist

  • Large sailboat drawing attached to a wall
  • Sticky notes
  • Sharpie markers

Introduce purpose for the activity.

We are going to play a game called Sailboat. At the conclusion of this game, we will understand the Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and the Threats we face.

Let’s start with a thinking activity.

Answer this: what is current and know to be true about us? These are just facts about [name of organization]. Write one thought per sticky note. You have 2 minutes. Start now.

After the time is up, have participants share their thoughts, standing up and placing sticky notes on open spaces in the sailboat drawing. 1 minute or less to share per person.

The strongest part of the boat, or better, the most likely part of the boat to last is the body of the boat. Which of these facts about [name of organization] are strengths?

Facilitator uses participant responses to move strengths to body of the boat.

Let’s take a look at some of these sticky notes not moved to the body of the boat. Are any of them weaknesses?

Facilitator moves weaknesses to anchor based on participant responses.

Are any of them threats to [name of organization]?

Facilitator moves threats to storm clouds based on participant responses.

Let’s add a few more thoughts here. What other fears about [name of organization] you have? They could be weaknesses or threats. Write one thought per sticky note. You have 2 minutes.

Ask participants one at a time to share their thoughts and have the participants place sticky notes on the anchor or the storm clouds. Place duplicates on top of each other, if needed. 1 minute or less to share.

What are possibilities you see for [name of organization]? One thought per sticky note. You have 2 minutes.

Ask participants to share one at a time and place sticky notes on the sails. 1 minute or less to share. After all have shared, congratulate group.

Sailboat Activity resulting in SWOT Analysis

You have conducted a SWOT analysis, examining strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats. This analysis will provide insight into strategy building activities today and in the future.

Recommended break for full day session.

Activity 3 — Core Values

25 minutes

Purpose: Identify the essence of the organization’s beliefs and conduct.

Pre-Session Checklist

  • Large sheet of paper per group attached to a wall
  • Sticky notes
  • Sharpie markers
  • Card with the five questions for each participant

Introduce purpose for the activity.

Every organization has a set of Core Values that guide the behavior and actions of its members. For example the Core Values of Covenant Eyes are Honor God, Serve Others, Passion for Excellence, and Optimism. Microsoft’s Core Values are Innovation, Diversity, and Social Responsibility. Pfizer’s Core Values are courage, excellence, equity and joy. Each of these organization’s Core Values guide external interactions and are reflected in company culture.

[name of organization] has Core Values as well. Let’s bring these to the surface.

Create groups of 5–7 people.

Each of you will list on sticky notes, one thought per sticky note, what you believe are the guiding principles that influence behavior and action at [name of organization]. You have 2 minutes.

After 2 minutes has elapsed, encourage groups to share.

Share your thoughts with each other by placing them on a large sheet of paper. 1 minute or less per person to share.

Group Activity

After participants have shared their thoughts, ask them to group related thoughts by grouping related sticky notes. Explain they have 4 minutes.

Ask participants to work together to label the groups of related sticky notes, using a different color sticky note as the label. 2 minutes.

Ask for a volunteer to share the results. Congratulate group.

You have just identified a draft set of Core Values for [name of organization]. Core Values identify if actions and behaviors are in line with organizational values. Core Values become the guide for staffing decisions, community involvement, behavior at [name of organization] and away from [name of organization].

Let’s further investigate the accuracy of these Core Values by asking ourselves five questions. If the answers are “Yes” for each Core Value, we can assume the Core Value is accurate for [name of organization]:

1. Are these Core Values fundamental to [name of organization] regardless of whether or not they are rewarded or publicly recognized?

2. If you woke up tomorrow morning with enough money to retire for the rest of your life and live in the perfect spot on earth, would you continue to hold on to these Core Values?

The next three questions are important because they help to make a distinction between Core Values and strategy. Core Values are fixed regardless of situation and time. Strategy, practices, and processes change based on a variety of factors.

3. Can you envision these values being as valid 100 years from now as they are today?

4. Would you want [name of organization] to continue to hold these values, even if at some point, they became a competitive disadvantage?

5. If you were to start a new organization tomorrow in a different line of work, would you build these Core Values into the new organization?

Provide a card with the five questions to each participant.

This card is a reminder of the five questions and will serve as a conversation material for your team as you work through determining and finalizing your core values in future meetings.

Activity 4— Mission, Vision, Value Proposition, and Customer Segments Affinity Diagramming

25 minutes

Purpose: Preparatory activities for Business Model Canvas mapping.

Pre-Session Checklist

  • One large blank sheet of paper per group attached to a wall
  • One large sheet labeled 1–5 three times attached to a wall
  • Sharpie markers
  • Group one card and Group two card with prepared questions

Group one card

  • What value do we deliver to people we connect with?
  • Which of their problems are we helping to solve?
  • Which of their needs are we satisfying?
  • Then take a look at [name of organization]’s benefits and features?
  • What is the experience we deliver?

Group two card

  • For whom are we creating value?
  • Who is most important for us to reach?
  • What wants of theirs are we satisfying?
  • What needs of thiers are we meeting?
  • What fears do they have?

Introduce purpose for the activity.

We have discussed SWOT analysis and [name of organization]’s Core Values, but we have not discussed what [name of organization] is exactly. What is [name of organization]? And what do people want from [name of organization]? What do they expect? What do we deliver?

Let’s work through gaining a shared understanding of what we are, what we are doing, and where we are going in the future. You will have 7 minutes for this activity.

Break participants into two groups. Direct Group one to stand and gather around one of the sets of large papers. Read the questions for Group one aloud to the large group and hand the card to a member of Group one.

Group one is answering questions about Mission, Vision, and Value Proposition.

Customer Segments activity outcome for a summer camp

Direct Group two to stand and gather around the other set of large papers. Read the questions for Group two aloud to the large group and hand the card to a group member.

Group two is answering questions about Customer Segments.

After 7 minutes, say:

Groups, identify the three most important elements from your lists. If you have time, prioritize the elements. You have 2 minutes.

After 2 minutes say:

Starting with the most important element, answer the question “Why? Why is this important or why are these people someone we want to connect with?” You’ll have 1 minute for each of the three most important elements.

Inform teams after each minute has elapsed. Encourage them to move on the the next element, even if they are not ‘finished’ answering the questions. After 3 minutes, Have teams share their outcomes with the group. 5 minutes per group. Congratulate groups.

We have conducted a SWOT Analysis, discussed Core Values, who we are and who we serve. Our next two activities will begin to consolidate these discussions on a single form, The Business Model Canvas.

Activity 5— Refine Value Proposition

15 minutes

Purpose: Preparatory activities for Business Model Canvas mapping.

Pre-Session Checklist

  • Blank Performance Continuum
  • Removable dots or small sticky notes
  • Sharpie markers

Introduce purpose for the activity. Ask “What is Strategy?” Allow time for answers. Share quotes:

Steve Baty says “Experience Strategy is a collection of activities that an organization chooses to engage in to deliver a series of positive exceptional interactions, which when taken together, constitute a product or service offering that is meaningful in some hard to replicate way, which is unique, distinct, distinguishable from competitors.”

Eliel Saarinen (Pronounced: Elly-eel Sarrinen) says “Always design a thing by considering it in its next larger context — a chair in a room, a room in a house, a house in an environment, an environment in a city plan.”

Strategy is a design of products and services — delineating what an organization does and what it doesn’t do, leading to some tough choices.

Let’s break into two new groups. Using sticky notes, describe the customer’s experience with [name of organization] one thought per sticky note. For example, if we were car dealership we might have words like luxurious, clean, and stylish. Feel free to discuss with each other. You have 3 minutes.

Ask teams to share words.

Performance Continuum for a summer camp in the northern woods

This is a Performance Continuum. It is a helpful scale for defining things and leads to a shared understanding for direction and decision making.

We will use the words you listed to describe [name of organization] adding the ‘opposite’ of the word and evaluate the customer experience on a scale to further define the customer’s experience with [name of organization].

Fill out Performance Continuum with sticky note words. Hand out removable dots or small sticky notes. Encourage discussion regarding where the customer’s experience with [name of organization] falls on the scale. 10 minutes. Congratulate teams.

Today, the Performance Continuum will serve to further refine Value Proposition, which Group one was working on over here (gesture toward Group one’s paper).

Activity 6— Introduction to the Business Model Canvas

15–20 minutes

Purpose: The Business Model Canvas breaks down an organization into key elements, informing strategic decision making.

Pre-Session Checklist

  • Blank Business Model Canvas
  • Sticky notes
  • Sharpie markers

Introduce purpose for the activity.

This is the Business Model Canvas. Has anyone ever worked with the Business Model Canvas before?

Allow participants to share.

We will be working with this canvas for the rest of our activities. You have already done a great deal of pre-work in previous activities to fill this out.

There are rules regarding use of the Business Model Canvas:

• Times change, methods change, people’s needs change. We need to be able to move things around, remove things, and add things without fear that something is set in stone. So, never write directly on the canvas. Always use sticky notes.

• Core Values should permeate everything we do. They serve as a guide for all decision making, from strategic leadership decisions, to what to do during lunch. Core Values are not listed on the Business Model Canvas, but keep them in mind when making decisions.

Since it is always a good idea to start with people we connect with, we will use the work of Group two from a previous activity where they identified our Customer Segment. Will someone from Group two remind us what they found out about our Customer Segment?

Offer Group two sticky notes to write their findings on and add to the Customer Segment section of the Business Model Canvas. After Group two has shared say,

Let’s confirm each of the following.

Customers are in separate segments if their needs require and justify a distinct offer. Do these identified groups require a distinct offer?

Are these an accurate representation of [name of organization]’s customers?

Facilitator adjusts groups based on group input, if needed.

A Value Proposition describes the bundle of products and services that create value for a specific Customer Segment. Group one has identified these products and services for us. Using these new sticky notes, Group one, share the components of [name of organization]’s Value Proposition.

After Group one has shared say,

Let’s confirm each of the following about our unique Value Proposition:

•Is this the reason why people turn to the [name of organization] experience over another experience?

• Have we clearly identified the bundles of products and services are we offering to each Customer Segment?

Congratulate participants.

Recommended break for full day session.

Activity 7— Introduction the Visual Value Curve

20–25 minutes

Purpose: Value curves test whether an organization’s strategy is uniquely differentiated from other similar organizations.

Pre-Session Checklist

Introduce purpose for the activity.

In order to understand [name of organization]’s strategy and if [name of organization] offers a distinctive and unique Value Proposition, we must understand how we are different and distinct from other organizations who do what we do.

Has anyone read the book Blue Ocean Strategy?

Allow respondents to share.

If no: Blue Ocean Strategy states there are two oceans where a Value Proposition lives. It really isn’t that binary, but this is a good example for us to wrap our minds around the concept of ‘oceans of opportunity’.

There is the red ocean, where most organizations live. And there is the blue ocean, where innovative organizations live.

The Value Curve is a diagram that visually compares the elements of Value Propositions on a range of factors by rating them on a scale from low to high. These can be features, benefits, or ways in which a product is distributed or consumed.

The combination of these various factors illustrate an organization’s products or services and how closely they follow other organizations who do similar things. If they follow other organizations too closely, then that organization will be fighting it out in a red ocean.

Take the circus, for example. What activities define a circus?

Allow participants to share. Using sticky notes, place ideas on a prepared blank Value Curve chart.

Circuses tend to provide a similar experience and as a result, fight it out in a red ocean.

A blue ocean, on the other hand, is an entirely new idea. For example, has anyone been to a Cirque du Soleil production?

Ask participants how the experience is different from a regular circus. Map out Cirque du Soleil’s value curve.

If we have a stand-alone offering that does not mimic other organizations like ours, then we are in a blue ocean. If we are doing what every other similar organization does, then we are in a red ocean fighting for our lives in a crowded market.

The goal of the Visual Value Curve is to draw a comparison between us and organizations who offer similar services and experiences. The Visual Value Curve can reveal opportunities for innovation.

Although drawing a visual value curve takes time and a solid understanding of the offerings of competitors, let’s draw an initial value curve for [name of organization] .

After identifying gaps, we can investigate the feasibility of these gaps by asking “Will the people we want to reach want this?” “ Can we afford to offer this?”

It may be possible to identify changes to our products and/or services that significantly alters the value proposition and provides an opportunity to enter a blue ocean.

Visual Value Curve for a summer camp

Draw [name of organization] Value Curve 5–10 minutes

After the sticky notes have been added say,

There are four ways to evaluate a Value Curve analysis and modify a value proposition.

These are:

1. Raise: Can any existing elements be enhanced or increased?

2. Reduce: On the flip-side, are there any elements that can be reduced? These may be features that are of little value relative to their cost.

3. Create: Is there anything that can be introduced that to date has not been available within the market? A new feature that makes the product more effective in solving people’s problems?

4. Eliminate: Are there any elements to the product that add no real value but are simply there as part of a status-quo?

Value Curves take time. I encourage you to continue to discuss [name of organization]’s Value Curve at future leadership meetings. Read Blue Ocean Strategy as a group and consider how to vary the Value Curve to place [name of organization] in a blue ocean by providing to customers what they didn’t even know they needed.

Activity 8— Back to the Business Model Canvas

15 minutes

Purpose: The Business Model Canvas breaks down an organization into key elements, informing strategic decision making.

Pre-Session Checklist

  • Business Model Canvas from previous activity
  • Large blank paper
  • Sticky notes
  • Sharpie markers

Introduce purpose for the activity.

Let’s quickly examine [name of organization]’s Channels. Channels serve several functions, including:

• Delivering a Value Proposition to Customer Segments

• Raising awareness of an organization’s products and services

• Helping Customer Segments evaluate an organization’s Value Proposition

• Allowing customers to purchase or engage with specific products and services

• Providing post-purchase customer support

On sticky notes, one thought per sticky note, describe how [name of organization] communicates with and reaches Customer Segments to deliver or follow up on the Value Proposition. You have 1 minute.

Presenting ideas to the group

After 1 minute encourage participants to share their sticky notes by one at a time placing them on the large blank paper. 1 minute or less to share per person.

• Through which Channels do our Customer Segments want to be reached?

• How are we reaching them now?

• How do our Channels work together?

• Which ones work best?

• Which ones are most cost-efficient?

• How are we integrating them with customer routines?

• Are there other Channels we are missing?

The right side of the Business Model Canvas is a cycle. Customer Segments, Customer Relationships, and Channels work together. Organizations should clarify the types of relationships it wants to establish with each Customer Segment.

Think about your experience with your Internet Service Provider, your favorite restaurant, or a website where you purchase products. Your experience will probably fall into one of three types.

1. This is a necessary evil and is super frustrating.

2. Wow — they are awesome! They know exactly what I want even before I ask!

3. Meh. Whatever. It’s okay. It is good. I mean, it’s not bad or anything…

We want [name of organization] to fall into the awesome category. An organization does not fall into awesome without substantial planning and commitment.

As a leadership team you have homework. Think about these questions and set up a time between yourselves to discuss the right side cycle of relationships to establish improvements to those relationships.

Activity 9— The Winning Aspiration

25 minutes

Purpose: Answer “What does it mean to win with our customers?”

Pre-Session Checklist

  • The integrated cascade of choices visual from Playing to Win
  • Large blank paper
  • Sticky notes
  • Nice to have: large sticky notes
  • Prepared cards (see below)
  • Sharpie markers

Introduce purpose for the activity. Share example from Olay, using it as a reference for the activity. Open discussion 10–20 minutes

Does each organization like ours have a winning aspiration?

Allow time for responses. Ask the next set of questions, writing answers on large sticky notes and placing them next to the questions.

What is our winning aspiration?

Where will we play?

How will we win?

What capabilities must be in place?

What management systems are required?

Begin documenting or have a volunteer document on large sticky notes, adding the sticky notes to a blank paper

• What is [name of organization]’s mission statement?

• Does this mission statement reflect the Value Proposition?

• Does it map well to Customer Segments?

• What is vision for [name of organization] in five years?

• Is this vision reflected in the Value Proposition and map to Customer Segments?

Back to the Business Model Canvas, the right side justifies the decisions we make on the left.

We will split into three groups. You will have 5 minutes to complete the list your group is assigned. Write the answers to each question on a sticky note, one thought per sticky note.

Group one, you will work on Key Resources — the most important assets required to make the [name of organization] business model work.

Group two, you will work on Key Activities — the most important things [name of organization] must do to make its business model work.

Group two, you will work on Key Partnerships — Describes the network of suppliers and partners that make the [name of organization] business model work.

Each group will write the answers to the questions on the card on a sticky note and add it to the Business Model Canvas.

Give Group one a card prepared with the following. They will read it as a group and answer the questions.

Key Resources — the most important assets required to make the [name of organization] business model work.

  • Physical
  • Financial
  • Intellectual
  • Human.

Key resources can be owned or leased by the company or acquired from key partners.

  • What Key Resources do our Value Propositions require?
  • What Key Resources do our Distribution Channels require?
  • What Key Resources do our Customer Relationships require?
  • What Key Resources do our Revenue Streams require?

Give Group two a card prepared with the following. They will read it as a group and answer the questions.

Key Activities — the most important things a company must do to make its business model work.

Examples:

  • For software maker Microsoft, Key Activities include software development.
  • For PC manufacturer Dell, Key Activities include supply chain management.
  • For consultancy McKinsey, Key Activities include problem solving.

Group Two:

  • What Key Activities do our Value Propositions require?
  • Our Distribution Channels?
  • Customer Relationships?
  • Revenue streams?
Partially complete Business Model Canvas

Give Group three a card prepared with the following. They will read it as a group and answer the questions.

Key Partnerships — Describes the network of suppliers and partners that make the business model work.

Companies create alliances to optimize their business models, reduce risk, or acquire resources.

  • Strategic alliances between non-competitors
  • Competition: strategic partnerships between competitors
  • Joint ventures to develop new businesses

Group Three:

  • Who are our Key Partners?
  • Who are our Key Suppliers?
  • Which Key Resources are we acquiring from Partners?
  • Which Key Activities do Partners perform?

After 5 minutes, encourage all groups share their findings 5 minutes per group. Congratulate groups.

Recommended break for full day session.

Activity 10— The Creativity Matrix

25 minutes

Purpose: A tool to spark new ideas.

Pre-Session Checklist

  • Creativity Matrix
  • Green, yellow, and blue Sticky notes
  • Sharpie markers

Introduce purpose for the activity.

We have the Business Model Canvas. We’ve drawn our Visual Value Curve. Now let’s discuss innovative ideas — how we might break away from familiar ideas and conventional boundaries into an exploration of innovation and creativity.

Explain the Creativity Matrix.

Now is the blue section. This is what we have always done. These ideas are familiar and known to work well.

How is the yellow section. These are original ideas, difficult or expensive to implement. This section is good for setting future goals or sharing grand ideas.

Wow is the green section. These ideas are original and easy to implement. The goal is to have as many ideas in this section as possible.

Give participants sticky notes of each color. Have them come up with at least four ideas for each category. 7 minutes.

After 7 minutes, ask participants to place their ideas on the matrix, sharing with the group 1 min per person. 7–10 minutes total time.

Give 3 dot stickers or sticky note strips to each person. Ask participants to vote on the three ideas that they believe are best. After all the participants have voted, determine which ideas have the most votes. Allow time for participants to discuss ideas.

Explain,

This matrix of ideas can serve as a starter to discuss new goals, ideas, methods, value propositions, and processes. Revisit this activity from time to time to generate new and fresh ideas.

Activity 11— Impact Effort Matrix

20–25 minutes

Purpose: A tool to evaluate time allocation and maximized impact.

Pre-Session Checklist

  • Blank Impact/Effort Matrix
  • Sticky notes
  • Sharpie markers

Introduce purpose for the activity.

How will we measure success in one month? Six months? One year? Five Years?

First we must have a unified set of goals in order to measure anything. Then we must commit to a measurement system to maintain accountability for reaching goals or changing tactics to reach goals.

Let’s start by taking a few activities and goals we have already discussed and mapping them on the Impact Effort Matrix.

Impact Effort Matrix

Explain the Matrix.

1. Low Impact, Low Effort: Further discussion is likely required.

2. High Impact, Low Effort: The best ideas go here!

3. High Impact, High Effort: Further discussion is likely required.

4. Low Impact, High Effort: Probably best to avoid these.

11 minutes Ask participants to write down their ideas for activities or goals on sticky notes. Ask each person to present their ideas to the group. The entire group collaborates to decide where the idea should be placed on the matrix and how to measure it. Thank each participant.

Conclusion for full day session

This has been a day full of challenging mental work. Let’s look over what this team has accomplished today. You have

• Discussed your strengths

• Conducted a SWOT Analysis

• Identified Core Values

• Discussed your Mission, Vision, Value Proposition, and Customer Segments

• [name of organization] has mapped an initial Visual Value Curve

•The Value Proposition, Customer Segments, Channels, and Relationships, Key Activities, Resources, and Partners are identified on the Business Model Canvas.

• We’ve discussed the [name of organization]’s Winning Aspiration

• And ideated on creative ways to move forward with intention, measuring our success.

That’s a lot of work! Today’s session serves as the beginning of conversations to identify and act on a set of guiding principles unique to [name of organization]. When these guiding principles are communicated and adopted they lead to patterns of decision making, delivering meaningful value to people inside and outside the organization.

Thank participants, help them gather artifacts, and encourage them to reference the artifacts in future leadership meetings, updating them as needed.

References

Lafley, A.G., and Martin, Roger L. Playing to Win: How Strategy Really Works. Boston: Harvard Business Review Press, 2013. Print.

Lencioni, Patrick, The Advantage: Why Organizational Health Trumps Everything Else in Business. San Francisco: Jossey Bass, 2012. Print.

Osterwalder, Alexander; Pigneur, Yves. Business Model Generation. Hoboken: John Wiley and Sons, 2010. Print.

Osterwalder, Alexander; Pigneur, Yves; Bernarda, Greg; Smith, Alan; Papadakos, Trish. Value Proposition Design. Hoboken: John Wiley and Sons, 2014. Print.

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